What is polymorphism in drug metabolism?
One of the major causes of interindividual variation of drug effects is genetic variation of drug metabolism. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes give rise to distinct subgroups in the population that differ in their ability to perform certain drug biotransformation reactions.
What is genetic polymorphism and why is it important in drug dosing?
Genetic polymorphisms in drug transporters such as P-gp may predict the partitioning characteristics of a drug between cells and plasma. This may aid either in determining the therapeutic range or avoiding specific drugs with a particularly high risk of efficacy failure or toxicity.
What role do genetic factors play in drug metabolism?
Genetic polymorphisms have been identified for many drug-metabolizing enzymes, including the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes. This gives rise to distinct population phenotypes of persons who have metabolism capabilities ranging from extremely poor to extremely fast.
What do polymorphisms do?
polymorphism, in biology, a discontinuous genetic variation resulting in the occurrence of several different forms or types of individuals among the members of a single species. A discontinuous genetic variation divides the individuals of a population into two or more sharply distinct forms.
How does polymorphism affect bioavailability?
Due to the differences in crystal structure, different polymorphs of a given solid drug show different physicochemical characteristics, which may lead to different drug bioavailability and half-life of the drug.
What is polymorphism toxicology?
The occurrence of genetic polymorphisms of drug metabolism means that populations contain subgroups (phenotypes) that differ sharply in their abilities to effect a number of metabolic reactions. Because of this, major interphenotype differences occur in responsiveness to drugs and toxic substances.
What is the importance of genetic polymorphism?
Genetic polymorphisms can contribute to phenotypic differences amongst individuals, including disease risk and drug response. Characterization of genetic polymorphisms that modulate gene expression and/or protein function may facilitate the identification of the causal variants.
What are the 4 types of genetic polymorphism?
Various types of polymorphisms include:
- single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
- small-scale insertions/deletions.
- polymorphic repetitive elements.
- microsatellite variation.
How does polymorphism affect drug absorption?
What is polymorphism biotechnology?
Polymorphism, as related to genomics, refers to the presence of two or more variant forms of a specific DNA sequence that can occur among different individuals or populations. The most common type of polymorphism involves variation at a single nucleotide (also called a single-nucleotide polymorphism, or SNP).
What is a polymorph person?
adjective. relating to the occurrence of more than one kind of individual (independent of sexual differences) in an interbreeding population.
What are the 4 types of polymorphism?
Let’s look at each.
- Subtype polymorphism (Runtime) Subtype polymorphism is the most common kind of polymorphism.
- Parametric polymorphism (Overloading)
- Ad hoc polymorphism (Compile-time)
- Coercion polymorphism (Casting)
Why polymorphism is important in pharmaceutical industry?
Polymorphism is an influential phenomenon especially in pharmaceutical sciences, as it can significantly influence variety of API properties including flowability, tableting, dissolution rate, solubility, stability and even biological performance including efficacy and toxicity [4, 88-90].
Why are polymorphs important?
Polymorphic forms of drugs can prove interesting for drug developers because their thermodynamic and physicochemical properties, such as energy, melting point, density, stability, and in particular solubility, may offer an improvement on the original form.
What is another name for polymorphism?
In this page you can discover 30 synonyms, antonyms, idiomatic expressions, and related words for polymorphism, like: diverseness, diversification, diversity, heterogeneity, heterogeneousness, multifariousness, multiformity, multiplicity, variegation, variety and variousness.
What is the importance of polymorphism in biology?
Polymorphism is common in nature; it is related to biodiversity, genetic variation, and adaptation. Polymorphism usually functions to retain a variety of forms in a population living in a varied environment. The most common example is sexual dimorphism, which occurs in many organisms.
What is genetic polymorphism examples?
Put simply, polymorphism is when there are two or more possibilities of a trait on a gene. For example, there is more than one possible trait in terms of a jaguar’s skin colouring; they can be light morph or dark morph. Due to having more than one possible variation for this gene, it is termed ‘polymorphism’.
Why is genetic polymorphism important?
Background. Genetic polymorphisms can contribute to phenotypic differences amongst individuals, including disease risk and drug response. Characterization of genetic polymorphisms that modulate gene expression and/or protein function may facilitate the identification of the causal variants.
How can I learn polymorphism?
Detection of these polymorphisms can be carried out by different methods including allele-specific PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism, the microarray technique, and whole genome sequencing. Calculation of the sample size is very important in studying any polymorphism using specific free software.
Why is polymorphism important in biology?
What are the examples of polymorphism?
A real-life example of polymorphism is a person who at the same time can have different characteristics. Like a man at the same time is a father, a husband and an employee. So the same person exhibits different behavior in different situations. This is called polymorphism.
What is polymorphism in psychology?
n. 1. in biology, the condition of having multiple behavioral or physical types within a species or population.
Why do we need polymorphism?
Polymorphism is considered one of the important features of Object-Oriented Programming. Polymorphism allows us to perform a single action in different ways. In other words, polymorphism allows you to define one interface and have multiple implementations.
What is polymorphism example?
A real-life example of polymorphism is a person who at the same time can have different characteristics. A man at the same time is a father, a husband, and an employee. So the same person exhibits different behavior in different situations. This is called polymorphism.