How do you calculate proline content?
In the paper there is a formula to convert from your concentrations obtained via the standard curve to µmoles proline/g of fresh weight material: [(µg proline/ml) x ml toluene)/115.5 µg/µmole] / [(g sample)/5].
How is proline standard prepared?
The maximum absorption peak of the compound is at 520 nm. And the concentration of Pro can be calculated by measuring the OD value at 520 nm. Preparation of chromogenic agent: Mix the reagent 2 (g), acetic acid (self-prepared) (mL) and Reagent 3 (mL) at a ratio of 5: 120: 80.
What is proline in plants?
Proline, an amino acid, plays an important role in plants. It protects the plants from various stresses and also helps plants to recover from stress more rapidly. 2. When applied exogenously to plants exposed to stress, Proline results in increased growth and other physiological characteristics of plants.
What is the composition of proline?
The molecular formula of proline is C5H9NO2 and molecular mass being 115.13 g mol-1. The IUPAC name of proline is Pyrolidine-2-carboxylic acid; therefore, it is the secondary amino group known as imino group which belongs to a five-member ring in a molecule.
What is the principle behind ninhydrin test?
Ninhydrin Test Principle
When exposed to ninhydrin, the amino acid undergoes oxidative deamination, resulting in the liberation of CO2, NH3, and an aldehyde along with hydrindantin (which is a reduced form of ninhydrin).
How do you measure proline in plants?
The isatin paper assay is simple and is suitable to assay proline content in large number of samples. The colorimetric measurement is quantitative and provides reliable data about proline content. The HPLC-based amino acid analysis can be employed when concentration of all amino acids has to be compared.
What’s special about proline?
Proline is unique in that it is the only amino acid where the side chain is connected to the protein backbone twice, forming a five-membered nitrogen-containing ring.
What is special about proline?
What are the properties of proline?
The proline contains a secondary amine group (the only natural amino acid having a secondary amine), giving its unique helix rings in the structure.
|Proline Mass (molar)||115.13g/mol|
|Melting Point||205–228 ºC|
|Appearance in forms||White Crystals|
Why does proline gives yellow color with ninhydrin?
Proline gives a yellow colour because it is a secondary amine. Most amino acids are primary amines with the general structure H2NCHRCOOH . Except for proline and hydroxyproline, all the α-amino acids are oxidized by ninhydrin to give the same intensely colored purple anion.
Why ninhydrin is used for estimation of amino acids?
Ninhydrin (2,2-dihydroxyindane-1,3-dione) reacts with primary and secondary amino compounds to form characteristic colored compounds. Since its discovery by Ruhemann in 1910 , this colorimetric reaction has been widely used for the detection of amino acids, peptides, proteins, and amines.
How do you calculate proline standard curve?
In the paper there is a formula to convert from your concentrations obtained via the standard curve to µmoles proline/g of fresh weight material: [(µg proline/ml) x ml toluene)/115.5 µg/µmole] / [(g sample)/5]. In the denominator, it states I must divide the weight of my sample by 5.
What makes proline different from other amino acids?
Why proline is called helix breaker?
Proline also destabilizes α-helices because of its irregular geometry; its R-group bonds back to the nitrogen of the amide group, which causes steric hindrance. In addition, the lack of a hydrogen on Proline’s nitrogen prevents it from participating in hydrogen bonding.
Why is proline different from other amino acids?
Why is proline important?
Proline plays important roles in protein synthesis and structure, metabolism (particularly the synthesis of arginine, polyamines, and glutamate via pyrroline-5-carboxylate), and nutrition, as well as wound healing, antioxidative reactions, and immune responses.
What is another name for proline?
Proline is one of the twenty amino acids used in living organisms as the building blocks of proteins. Proline is sometimes called an imino acid, although the IUPAC definition of an imine requires a carbon-nitrogen double bond. Proline is a non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from glutamic acid.
Which amino acids do not give purple colour with ninhydrin solution?
Proline being a secondary amine give a yellow orange colour with ninhydrin whereas all other α− amino acids give a blue-purple colour with ninhydrin.
Why does proline give yellow color with ninhydrin?
Which method is used for estimation of amino acid?
The ninhydrin method was introduced for quantitative determination of amino acids in the late 1940s.
What is so special about proline?
Why is proline not in alpha helices?
When proline is in a peptide bond, it does not have a hydrogen on the α amino group, so it cannot donate a hydrogen bond to stabilize an α helix or a β sheet. It is often said, inaccurately, that proline cannot exist in an α helix.
What is unique about proline?
Why is proline called amino acid?
Proline. Proline contains a secondary amine group, called an imine, instead of a primary amine group. For this reason, proline is called an imino acid.