What is phase titration method for microemulsion?
Phase titration method 1. dilution of an oil-surfactant mixture with water.(w/o) 2. dilution of a water-surfactant mixture with oil.(o/w) 3. mixing all components at once. In some systems, the order of ingredient addition may determine whether a microemulsion forms or not.
What is phase inversion temperature method?
The phase inversion is defined as the transition of an oil-in-water (O/W) to a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion (and vice versa) resulting from the change of the surfactant affinity from water to oil (and vice versa).
Which method is efficient for nanoemulsion formulation?
High energy methods are extensively used to formulate nanoemulsion (Mahdi Jafari et al., 2006). High mechanical energy is used that provide strong disruptive forces, which break up large droplets to nano-sized droplets and produce nanoemulsions with high kinetic energy.
What is phase inversion emulsion?
Emulsion phase inversion is the process of interconversion between two types of simple emulsions: water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions. Phase inversion can be induced by shifting the emulsifier affinity from one phase to the other, which is called transitional phase inversion.
What is phase titration method?
[′fāz tī‚trā·shən] (analytical chemistry) Analysis of a binary mixture of miscible liquids by titrating with a third liquid that is miscible with only one of the components, using the ternary phase diagram to determine the end point.
How many preparation methods are available for microemulsion?
In general there are two methods for nanoparticle synthesis using microemulsion techniques (Osseo-Asare and Arriagada, 1990). The first method is called the one microemulsion method. This method includes “energy triggering” and the “one micro emulsion plus reactant” method.
How does phase inversion occur?
Phase inversion can be induced by shifting the emulsifier affinity from one phase to the other, which is called transitional phase inversion. It can also be triggered by a change in the water-to-oil ratio of the emulsion, which leads to a process known as catastrophic phase inversion.
What is inversion of phase give an example?
Phase inversion refers to a phenomenon that occurs when agitated oil in water emulsion, reverts to a water in oil and vice versa. Emulsification via phase inversion is widely used in fabrication of cosmetic products, pharmaceutical products (e.g., vesicles for drug delivery), foodstuff and detergents.
What is the difference between microemulsion and nanoemulsion?
The term “micro-” usually means 10−6, while the term “nano-” usually means 10−9, which would imply that nanoemulsions contain particles that are smaller than those in microemulsions. In practice, the opposite is usually the case – the particles in a microemulsion are smaller than those in a nanoemulsion.
How are nano emulsions made?
Nanoemulsions are colloidal particulate systems that are synthesized using an emulsifying agent, oil, and an aqueous phase . These are oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions. For the synthesis of nanoemulsions, two immiscible liquids are mixed to form a single phase using suitable surfactant.
Why is phase inversion used in emulsion?
What is two-phase titration?
The methylene blue (MB) two-phase titration method is a rapid and efficient method for determining the concentrations of anionic surfactants. The point at which the aqueous and chloroform phases appear equally blue is called Epton’s end point.
Why methylene blue is used in titration?
Methylene blue (MB) dye is widely used as a color indicator for surfactant titration in the petroleum and environmental fields. (1-6) Epton first proposed the application of MB in a two-phase titration to determine the concentrations of anionic surfactants, as demonstrated in Figure 1a and reactions 1–3.
What is microemulsion method for synthesis of nanoparticles?
The overall process of nanoparticle synthesis in microemulsion is guided by certain rules: The collision between two non nucleated (nonempty) micelles results in transfer of entire solute in one micelle and the formation of an empty micelle.
What is microemulsion method?
2 Microemulsion methods. A microemulsion is a thermodynamically stable transparent, isotropic dispersion of two immiscible liquids such as water and oil stabilized by surfactant molecules at the water/oil interface.
What is phase inversion temperature in emulsion?
The higher the phase inversion temperature, the more stable is the oil-in-water emulsion at ambient temperature [l]. The phase inversion temperature depends on the concentration of the emulsifier mixture  and the nature of the emulsified oils , as well as on the hydrophilic- hydrophobic balance.
What happens during phase inversion?
During the phase inversion process, a thermodynamically stable polymer solution is transformed from a liquid into a solid state in a controlled manner. This solidification is preceded by a liquid–liquid demixing.
What is Nano emulsification?
Nanoemulsions are nano-sized emulsions, which are manufactured for improving the delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients. These are the thermodynamically stable isotropic system in which two immiscible liquids are mixed to form a single phase by means of an emulsifying agent, i.e., surfactant and co-surfactant.
What is the size of microemulsion?
A microemulsion is a thermodynamically stable fluid that differs from kinetically stable emulsions, which will separate into oil and water over time. The particle size of microemulsions ranges from about 10–300 nm. Because of this small particle size, microemulsions appear as clear or translucent solutions.
How does nano emulsion work?
What is a nano emulsion capsule?
Organic Remedies’ Nano-Emulsion Capsules contain a water-soluble powder that is formulated to increase bioavailability when introduced to the gastrointestinal tract. Good for patients who have trouble digesting oil-based products.
Is methylene blue positive or negative?
Methylene Blue is a cationic stain. In simple terms, it is a blue dye that is charged positively and binds the negatively charged components of the cells such as the nucleus, DNA or RNA present in the cytoplasm.
What is the pH of methylene blue?
Methylene blue has a pH of 6 in water(10g/L) at 25 °C (77 °F).
How many major steps involved for the development of nanoparticles in microemulsion method?
The different stages of nanoparticle formation process inside water droplets can be explained as: chemical reaction, nucleation and particle growth. Two different reactants (A and B) are introduced in these microemulsions.
What is microemulsion method for nanoparticle synthesis?
Microemulsions are self-aggregated colloidal systems that provide a controllable system with a promising application as nanoreactors: they can act as pools within which the properties of the nanoparticles can be controlled without difficulty.